Medicaoncology bladder Cancer

What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer develops when the bladder's cells grow out of control. As the number of cells grows, a tumor forms, which then spreads to other parts of the body. The origins are unknown, but family history, genetic changes caused by tobacco smoking, and chemical exposure are all relevant risk factors. Bladder cancer usually starts in the cells that line the lining of your bladder (urothelial cells). Your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder also contain urothelial cells. Although urothelial carcinoma can occur in the kidneys and ureters, it is far more frequent in the bladder.

The majority of bladder cancers are detected early on, when they are very curable. Even early-stage bladder tumors, however, might recur following treatment. As a result, persons with bladder cancer may require follow-up testing for years following treatment to check for recurrence.

The oncology section at Medica specializes at providing world-class cancer treatment, thanks to their combined clinical excellence of more than 30 years. Our oncologists and onco-surgeons are supported by the latest cancer treatment technologies as well as a team of highly skilled reconstructive surgeons who provide extensive treatment to all of our patients, both adults and children, with a multidisciplinary approach to treating all types and forms of cancer.

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    Types

    There are three main forms of bladder cancer:

    Urothelial Carcinoma

    It is a type of cancer that affects the lining of the bladder. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) is the most common kind of bladder cancer, accounting for almost 90% of all cases. It also accounts for 10% to 15% of all kidney malignancies identified in adulthood. It all starts in the urinary tract’s urothelial cells. Transitional cell carcinoma, or TCC, is another name for urothelial cancer.

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Chronic irritation of the bladder, such as from an infection or long-term use of a urinary catheter, is linked to squamous cell carcinoma. It’s more common in places of the world where schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection, is a common cause of bladder infections.

    Adenocarcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma is a cancer that starts in the cells of the mucus-secreting glands of the bladder. Bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare cancer.

    Symptoms

    Urinary problems are the most prevalent symptom of bladder cancer. One of the earliest signs is blood in the urine. It could be orange, pink, or dark red in color. The following signs and symptoms may indicate that you need to see a doctor right away:

    • Cloudy or Bloody Urine (Hematuria)
    • Frequent Urge to Urinate
    • Frequent Urination
    • Burning sensation or Pain (while passing urine)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or prostate inflammation are all possible causes of these symptoms. In any case, it’s critical to have your symptoms evaluated.

    There are more symptoms to lookout for if the cancer has spread:

    • Backache
    • Unexplained Weight Loss
    • Painful Bones
    • Extreme Exhaustion
    • Swollen Feet
    • Loss of Appetite
    • Reduced Urine Output
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    Causes

    Among other cancers, bladder cancer is one of the most frequent. It is more common in males than in women, and it primarily affects older persons, though it can strike anyone at any age. When cells in the bladder begin to grow and divide abnormally, bladder cancer develops. Tumors originate when cells get mutations that allow them to grow and divide uncontrolled without dying. But you can definitely learn about the causes and try to avoid them if possible.

    • Infections of Parasitic Nature
    • Exposure to Harmful Chemicals
    • Exposure to Radiation
    • Congenital Bladder Abnormalities
    • Chronic Irritation in Bladder Lining

    Other Risk Factors

    • Smoking: When you smoke cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, dangerous substances can build up in your urine. These noxious compounds can harm the bladder lining, increasing the risk of cancer.
    • Age: The risk of bladder cancer rises with age. Although it is uncommon in those under the age of 40, it can happen at any age.
    • Gender: Bladder cancer is more common in men than it is in women.
    • Family History: If a person has had bladder cancer before, it is quite likely that they will develop it again. If a first-degree family, such as a parent, sibling, or child, has had bladder cancer, the risk of acquiring bladder cancer is enhanced.
    • Personal History: Persistent urine infections as a result of using the urinary catheter on a regular basis may raise the chance of developing squamous cell bladder cancer. This is also associated with schistosomiasis, a parasitic urine illness.
    Stages

    Bladder cancer staging is determined by how far the cancer has spread through the bladder’s tissues, if the cancer has spread to neighboring lymph nodes, and whether the disease has spread to nearby organs and distant places.

    Stage 0: There are extremely early, high grade cancer cells exclusively in the inner layer of the bladder lining (stage 0a) or R the cancer is in the genesis of its site in the inner layer of the bladder lining (stage 0is).

    Stage I: The cancer has begun to penetrate the connective tissue beneath the bladder lining in stage one.

    Stage II: The cancer has spread to the bladder wall muscle through the connective tissue layer.

    Stage III: The disease has spread to the fat layer beneath the muscle and may have spread to the prostate, womb, vaginal area, or lymph nodes.

    Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the abdominal wall (abdomen) or the area between the hips (pelvis), as well as to other sections of the body such as the bones, lungs, or liver.

    Diagnosis

    Anyone who exhibits bladder cancer signs and symptoms should be investigated. The kidneys, bladder, and urethra are all areas of the pelvis that should be examined, especially if the person is over 40 years old. One or more urine tests, a cystourethroscopy, and a kidney and ureter imaging test are all part of this evaluation.

    Urine Tests: If you suspect bladder cancer, you should do the following urine tests:

    • Urinalysis
    • Urine Cytology
    • Urine Culture

    Imaging Test: CT, MRI, USG, Sonography, Pyelogram, IVP, and Cystoscopy are imaging examinations that can reveal tumors or abnormalities in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.

    Biopsy: Apart from these imaging procedures, a biopsy might be conducted only for the purpose of analyzing aberrant tissue. This might be investigated in a lab or an operating room. Cystoscopy is commonly used to do biopsies in the clinic.

    Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor(TURBT): Imaging studies are used to confirm a diagnosis of bladder cancer. The bladder mass is then resected via cystoscopy under anesthesia to confirm the size of the tumor, a procedure known as TURBT. The tumor can also be characterized as infiltrating or not penetrating the muscle, which has an impact on treatment plans.

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    Treatment

    Depending on the stage and type of cancer found in your bladder, our doctors are going to work out a treatment plan that can be a combination of various types of cancer treatments. Your recovery is entirely dependent on how you and your body responds to the various types of treatment. Radiation therapy, immunotherapy and chemo are some of the forms of treatment that are used to destroy the cancer cells of your bladder. Surgical interventions are also advised to patients in such types of cases where after the initial surgery to remove the cancerous growth, the other forms of treatment therapies are used to stop the recurrence of the cancer cells.

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